Quantitative risk assessment for environmental and occupational health [electronic resource]

  • Hallenbeck, William H. , Cunningham, K.M.
  • CRC Press
  • 2018
Quantitative risk assessment for environmental and occupational health [electronic resource]


Many individuals and groups need a usable treatment of the methodology required to assess the human health risks caused by toxicant exposure. This need is shared by industrial hygienists, environmental, occupational and public health professionals, toxicologists, epidemiologists, labor unions, attorneys, regulatory officials, and manufacturers and users of chemicals. The reader needs only a basic knowledge of biology adn algebra in order to utilize the methodology presented. In addition, a basic knowledge of toxicology, epidemiology, and statistics is derisrable for a full understanding of some aspects of risk assessment. Sophisticated computer programs are not required. All the computations can be carried out with a pocked calculator.

Table of Content

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Contents
1.2 Methods
1.3 Limitations
2.0 Exposure Characterization
2.1 Exposure scenario
2.2 Material characteristics
2.3 Risk group characteristics
2.4 Summary
3.0 Qualitative Evaluation of Human and Animal Studies
3.1 Control data
3.2 Latent period, effective exposure, and followup
3.3 Matching of experimental and risk groups
3.4 Animal studies: special considerations
3.5 Epidemiology studies: special considerations
3.6 Classification of toxicants by health effect and dose-response character
3.7 Data Bases
3.8 Summary
4.0 Quantitative Evaluation of Human and Animal Studies
4.1 Calculation of human dose from animal and human studies
4.2 Quantitation of response
4.3 Tests of significance
4.4 Calculation of control-adjusted test group response
4.5 Calculation of the upper limit of control-adjusted test group response
5.0 Risk Analysis
5.1 Individual excess risk
5.2 Excess cases
5.3 Sensitivity analysis
6.0 Acceptable Concentrations
6.1 Risk analysis method for toxicants with zero thresholds (e.g. carcinogens)
6.2 Safety factor method for toxic ants with nonzero thresholds
7.0 Example: Environmental and Occupational Exposure to a Hypothetical Industrial Toxicant
7.1 Solutions based on a rat study
7.2 Solutions based on an occupational epidemiology study
8.0 Example: Environmental Exposure to a Natural Toxicant, Radon-222 and its Daughters
8.1 Exposure characterization
8.2 Evaluation of studies
8.3 Risk analysis
8.4 Acceptable exposures
8.5 Comparison of results to other estimates of risk
8.6 Sources of uncertainty
8.7 Public health and regulatory implications
8.8 Summary
8.9 Conclusions